Heritage Languages

A language contact approach

| University of Amsterdam
| Tilburg University
| Radboud University Nijmegen
ISBN 9789027204714 | EUR 99.00 | USD 149.00
ISBN 9789027204707 | EUR 36.00 | USD 54.00
ISBN 9789027261762 | EUR 99.00/36.00*
| USD 149.00/54.00*
Heritage languages, such as the Turkish varieties spoken in Berlin or the Spanish used in Los Angeles, are non-dominant languages, often with little prestige. Their speakers also speak the dominant language of the country they live in. Often heritage languages undergo changes due to their special status. They have received a lot of scholarly attention and provide a link between academic concerns and educational issues. This book takes a language contact perspective: we consider heritage languages from the perspective of their history, their structural properties, and their interaction with other surrounding languages.
[Studies in Bilingualism, 58]  2019.  xix, 302 pp.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
List of tables
List of figures
List of abbreviations and grammatical glosses
Chapter 1. Heritage speakers and heritage languages
Chapter 2. History of the field of heritage language studies
Chapter 3. Social aspects of heritage languages
Chapter 4. Bilingual language use
Chapter 5. Methods for collecting heritage language data
Chapter 6. Studying variability in heritage language speaker populations and the base line
Chapter 7. Heritage language phenomena and what triggers them
Chapter 8. Grammatical models and research paradigms
Chapter 9. Language processing in multilingual speakers
Chapter 10. Heritage languages in a post-colonial setting: Focus on Papiamentu
Chapter 11. The political dimension of heritage languages: Endangered languages, language rights, and the preservation of diversity
Chapter 12. Technical terms used in this book related to heritage languages
Language index
Subject index


Aalberse, S., & Moro, F.
(2014) Stability in Chinese and Malay heritage languages as a source of divergence. In K. Braunmüller, S. Höder, & K. Kühl (Eds.), Stability and divergence in language contact: Factors and mechanisms (pp. 141–162). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Aalberse, S., Zhou, Y., & Andringa, S. J.
(2017) Extended use of demonstrative pronouns in two generations of Mandarin Chinese speakers in the Netherlands: Evidence of convergence? In E. Blom, L. Cornips, & J. Schaeffer (Eds.), Cross-linguistic influence in bilingualism: In honor of Aafke Hulk (pp. 25–48). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Aalberse, S., & Hulk, A.
(2018) Introduction to the special issue – Heritage language studies and early child bilingualism research: Understanding the connection. International Journal of Bilingualism, 22(5), 491–496. Crossref link
Aalberse, S., Andringa, S., Faber, M., & Lippe, P.
(Forthcoming). Definiteness in Wenzhounese Chinese in the Netherlands and in China: Evidence for generational change in two locations. In B. Brehmer, J. Treffers-Daller, & D. Berndt Eds. Lost in transmission: The role of attrition and input in heritage language development. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Abraham, W.
(2011) Spoken syntax in Cimbrian of the linguistic islands in Northern Italy – and what they (do not) betray about language universals and change under areal contact with Italo-Romance. In M. Putnam (Ed.), Studies on German-language islands (pp. 233–278). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Abrahamsson, N., & Hylstenstam, K.
(2009) Age of onset and nativelikeness in a second language: Listener perception versus linguistic scrutiny. Language Learning, 59, 249–306. Crossref link
Adelaar, K. A., & Prentice, D. J.
(1996) Malay: Its history, role and spread. Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia and the Americas, 2, 1. Berlin: De Gruyter. Crossref link
Adelman, J. S., Brown, G. D. A., & Quesada, J. F.
(2006) Contextual diversity, not word frequency, determines word-naming and lexical decision times. Psychological Science, 17, 814–823. Crossref link
Adjemian, C.
(1983) The transferability of lexical properties. In S. Gass & L. Selinker (Eds.), Language transfer in language learning (pp. 250–268). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Aghinotri, R. K.
(1987) Crisis of identity. The Sikhs in England. New Delhi: Bahri Publications, and Edmonton, CN: Linguistic Research.
Ahn, S., Chang, C. B., DeKeyser, R., & Lee-Ellis, S.
(2017) Age effects in first language attrition: Speech perception by Korean-English bilinguals. Language Learning, 67, 694–733. Crossref link
Aikhenvald, A. Y.
(2002) Language contact in Amazonia. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Albirini, A., Benmamoun, E., & Chakrani, B.
(2013) Gender and number agreement in the oral production of Arabic heritage speakers. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16(1), 1–18. Crossref link
Allen, B., & Salmons, J. C.
(2015) Heritage language obstruent phonetics and phonology. American Norwegian and Norwegian-American English. In J. Bondi Johannessen & J. C. Salmons (Eds.), Germanic heritage languages in North America. Acquisition, attrition and change (pp. 97–116). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Alvanoudi, A.
(2018) Language contact, borrowing and code switching: A case study of Australian Greek. Journal of Greek Linguistics, 18, 3–44. Crossref link
Ambridge, B., Kidd, E., Rowland, C. F., & Theakston, A. L.
(2015) The ubiquity of frequency effects in first language acquisition. Journal of Child Language, 42, 239–273. Crossref link
Andersen, R. W.
(1974) Nativization and hispanization in the Papiamentu of Curacao: A sociolinguistic study of variation (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Texas at Austin.
(1989) La adquisición de la morfología verbal. Lingüística, 1, 90–142.
(1991) Development sequences: The emergence of aspect marking in second language acquisition. In T. Huebner & C. Ferguson, (Eds.), Crosscurrents in second language acquisition and linguistic theory (pp. 305–323). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Androutsopoulos, J.
(2013) Code-switching in computer-mediated communication. In S. C. Herring, D. Stein, & T. Virtanen (Eds.), Pragmatics of computer-mediated communication (pp. 667–694). Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. Crossref link
Anttila, A.
(1997) Deriving variation from grammar. In F. Hinskens, R. van Hout, & L. Wetzels (Eds.), Variation, change and phonological theory (pp. 35–68). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Appel, R., & Muysken, P.
(1987) Language contact and bilingualism. London: Edward Arnold. [2005 University of Amsterdam Press].
Au, T. K. F., Knightly, L. M., Jun, S. A., & Oh, J. S.
(2002) Overhearing a language during childhood. Psychological Science, 13(3), 238–243. Crossref link
Auer, P.
(1999) From code-switching via language mixing to fused lects: Toward a dynamic typology of bilingual speech. International Journal of Bilingualism, 3(4), 309–332. Crossref link
Ayduk, O., Mendoza-Denton, R., Mischel, W., Downey, G., Peake, P. K., & Rodriguez, M.
(2000) Regulating the interpersonal self: Strategic self-regulation for coping with rejection sensitivity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(5), 776–792. Crossref link
Backus, A. M., & Türker-Van der Heiden, E.
(2009) Synchronic use of Turkish yapmak and the diachronic changes it leads to. Paper presented at 12th International Conference on Minority Languages, Tartu, Estonia, 28–30 May.
Backus, A. M., & Dorleijn, M.
(2008) Loan translations versus code-switching. In B. E. Bullock, & A. J. Toribio (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of linguistic code-switching (pp. 75–93). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Backus, A. M.
(1992) Patterns of language mixing. A study in Turkish-Dutch bilingualism. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
(1996) Two in one. Bilingual speech of Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands. Tilburg: Tilburg University Press.
(1998) Turks-Nederlandse codewisseling. Universele en taalspecifieke aspecten van taalcontact. Nederlandse Taalkunde, 3, 2–17.
(2005) Codeswitching and language change: One thing leads to another? International Journal of Bilingualism, 9(3/4), 307–340. Crossref link
(2013) Turkish as an immigrant language in Europe. In T. K. Bhatia & W. C. Ritchie (Eds.), The handbook of bilingualism and multilingualism (2nd ed., pp. 770–790). Oxford: Blackwell.
Backus, A. M., Doğruöz, A. S., & Heine, B.
(2011) Salient stages in contact-induces grammatical change: Evidence from synchronic vs. diachronic contact situations. Language Sciences, 33, 738–752. Crossref link
Bard, E. Gurman, Robertson, D., & Sorace, A.
(1996) Magnitude estimation of linguistic acceptability. Language, 72(1), 32–68. Crossref link
Barz, R. K., & Siegel, J.
(1988) Language transplanted: The development of overseas Hindi. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Bayram, F., Rothman, J., Iverson, M., Miller, D., Puig Mayenco, E., Kupisch, T., & Westergaard, M.
(2017) Differences in use without deficiencies in competence: Passives in the Turkish and German of Turkish heritage speakers in Germany. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 1–21. Crossref link
Bayram, F., Kupisch, T., Pascual y Cabo, D. & Rothman, J.
(In press). Terminology matters on theoretical grounds too!: Coherent grammars cannot be incomplete. Studies in Second Language Acquisition.
Benmamoun, E., Montrul, S., & Polinsky, M.
(2013a) Heritage languages and their speakers: Opportunities and challenges for linguistics. Theoretical Linguistics, 39(3–4), 129–181.
(2013b) Defining an “ideal” heritage speaker: Theoretical and methodological challenges Reply to peer commentaries. Theoretical Linguistics, 39(3–4), 259–294.
Benson, M.
(1960) American-Russian speech. American Speech, 35, 163–74. Crossref link
Bentahila, A., & Davies, E. E.
(1995) Patterns of code-switching and patterns of language contact. Lingua, 96(2), 75–93. Crossref link
Bernolet, S., Hartsuiker, R. J., & Pickering, M. J.
(2012) Effects of phonological feedback on the selection of syntax: Evidence from between-language syntactic priming. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 503–516. Crossref link
Bhatia, T. K., & Ritchie, W. C.
(Eds.) (2008) The handbook of bilingualism. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Bhatt, R., & Bolonyai, A.
(2011) Code-switching and the optimal grammar of bilingual language use. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 14(4), 1–25. Crossref link
Bialystok, E.
(2009) Bilingualism: The good, the bad, and the indifferent. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 12(1), 3–11. Crossref link
Birdsong, D., Gertken, L., & Amengual, M.
(Eds.) (2012) Bilingual language profile: An easy-to-use instrument to assess bilingualism. Austin, TX: COERLL, University of Texas at Austin. https://​sites​.la​.utexas​.edu​/bilingual/
Birdsong, D., & Molis, M.
(2001) On the evidence for maturational constraints in second language acquisition. Journal of Memory and Language, 44, 235–249. Crossref link
Birmingham, J. C.
(1970) The Papiamentu language of Curaçao (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Virginia, Charlottesville.
Blom, J.-P., & Gumperz, J. J.
(1972) Social meaning in linguistic structures: Code switching in Northern Norway. In J. J. Gumperz & D. Hymes (Eds.), Directions in sociolinguistics (pp. 407–434). New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
Blom, W. B. T., Polišenská, D., & Weerman, F.
(2007) Effects of age on the acquisition of agreement inflection. Morphology, 16(2), 313–336. Crossref link
Blutner, R., Hoop, H. de, & Hendriks, P.
(2006) Optimal communication. Stanford, CA: CSLI.
Boas, H. C.
(2009) The life and death of Texas German (Publication of the American Dialect Society). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Bobb, S. C., & Wodniecka, Z.
(2013) Language switching in picture naming: What asymmetric switch costs (do not) tell us about inhibition in bilingual speech planning, Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 25(5), 568–585. Crossref link
Bock, J. K.
(1995) Producing agreement. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8, 56–61. Crossref link
Boersma, P., & Weenink, D.
(2002) Praat [Computer program]. http://​www​.fon​.hum​.uva​.nl​/praat/
Boersma, P., & Hayes, B.
(2001) Empirical tests of the Gradual Learning Algorithm. Linguistic Inquiry, 32, 45–86. Crossref link
Bohman, T. M., Bedore, L. M., Peña, E. D., Mendez-Perez, A., & Gillam, R. B.
(2010) What you hear and what you say: Language performance in Spanish–English bilinguals. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 13(3), 325–344. Crossref link
Bondi Johannessen, J.
(2018) Factors of variation, maintenance and change in Scandinavian heritage languages. International Journal of Bilingualism, 22(4), 447–465. Crossref link
Bongaerts, T., van Summeren, C., Planken, B., & Schils, E.
(1997) Age and ultimate attainment in the pronunciation of a foreign language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 447–465. Crossref link
Bos, C.
(1977) Prestaties en problemen van Molukse leerlingen in het Mavo-onderwijs. Mens en Maatschappij, 52(3), 324–341.
Bosker, H. R., Quené, H., Sanders, T., & de Jong, N. H.
(2014) The perception of fluency in native and non-native speech. Language Learning, 64, 579–614. Crossref link
Bot, K. de
(1992) A bilingual production model: Levelt’s Speaking model adapted. Applied Linguistics, 13(1), 1–24. Crossref link
(2004) The multilingual lexicon: Modeling selection and control. The International Journal of Multilingualism, 1, 17–32. Crossref link
Bot, K. de, Broersma, M., & Isurin, L.
(2009) Sources of triggering in code switching. In L. Isurin, D. Winford, & K. de Bot (Eds.), Multidisciplinary approaches to code switching (pp. 85–102). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Bot, K. de, Lowie, W., & Verspoor, M.
(2005) Second language acquisition: An advanced resource book. London: Routledge. Crossref link
Bousquette, J., Putnam, M. T., Salmons, J., Frey, B., & Nützel, D.
(2016) Multiple grammars, dominance, and optimization. In G. Legendre, M. T. Putnam, H. de Swart, & E. Zaroukian (Eds.), Optimality theoretic syntax, semantics and pragmatics: From uni- to bidirectional optimization (pp. 158–176). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
Brecht, R. D., & Walton, A. R.
(1994) National strategic planning in the less commonly taught languages [includes Asian languages]. In R. D. Lambert (Ed.), Foreign language policy: An agenda for change (pp. 190–212). Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage.
Brenneker, P.
(1961) Curaçaoensia. Folkloristische aantekeningen over Curaçao. Curaçao: Boekhandel St. Augustinus.
Bresnan, J.
(2000) Optimal syntax. In J. Dekkers, F. van der Leeuw, & J. van de Weijer (Eds.) Optimality theory: Phonology, syntax and acquisition (pp. 334–385). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bridges, K., & Hoff, E.
(2014) Older sibling influences on the language environment and language development of toddlers in bilingual homes. Applied Psycholinguistics, 35(2), 225–241. Crossref link
Brown, C. M., & Hagoort, P.
(1999) The neurocognition of language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Brown, J., & Putnam, M.
(2015) Functional convergence and extension in contact: Syntactic and semantic attributes of the progressive aspect in Pennsylvania Dutch. In J. C. Salmons & J. B. Johannessen (eds.), Germanic heritage languages in North America: Acquisition and change (pp. 135–160). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Brown, R.
(1973) A First Language: The Early Stages. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Crossref link
Bultena, S.
(2013) Bilingual processing of cognates and language switches in sentence context (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Radboud University, Nijmegen.
Bylund, E., Abrahamsson, N., & Hylstenstam, K.
(2010) The role of language aptitude in first language attrition: The case of prepubescent attriters. Applied Linguistics, 31, 443–464. Crossref link
Bylund, E., & Díaz, M.
(2012) The effects of heritage language instruction on first language proficiency. A psycholinguistic perspective. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 5, 593–609. Crossref link
Bylund, E., & Jarvis, S.
(2011) L2 effects on L1 event conceptualization. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 14, 47–59. Crossref link
Bylund, E., & Ramírez-Galán, P.
(2014) Language aptitude in first language attrition: A study on late Spanish–Swedish bilinguals. Applied Linguistics, 37(5), 621–638. Crossref link
Bybee, J.
(2010) Language, usage and cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Calvet, J. L.
(1974) Linguistique et colonialisme, petit traité de glottophagie. Paris: Payot.
Canagarajah, A. S.
(2008) Language shift and the family: Questions from the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 12, 1–34. Crossref link
Carlock, E., & Wölck, W.
(1981) A method for isolating diagnostic linguistic variables: The Buffalo ethnolects experiment. In D. Sankoff & H. Cedergren (Eds.), Variation omnibus (pp. 17–24). Edmonton, Alberta: Linguistic Research.
Carreira, M.
(2004) Seeking explanatory adequacy: A dual approach to understanding the term “heritage language learner.”. Heritage Language Journal, 2(1), 1–25.
Carroll, J., Carton, S., & Wilds, C.
(1959) An investigation of “cloze” items in the measurement of achievement in foreign languages. ERIC ED 021 513.
Cavanaugh, J. R.
(2013) Language ideologies and language attitudes. A linguistic anthropological perspective. In P. Auer, J. Caro Reina, & G. Kaufmann (Eds.), Language variation – European perspectives IV: Selected papers from the Sixth International Conference on Language Variation in Europe (ICLaVE 6), Freiburg, June 2011 (pp. 45–56). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Chao, T. H.
(1996) Chinese heritage community language schools in the United States. In Schools in the United States (pp. 7–13). Washington, DC: National Foreign Language Center.
Chau, W.
(2011) The influence of Dutch on Cantonese in the Netherlands. Rural versus urban areas (Unpublished MA thesis). Leiden University.
Chen, H.
(2012) Acquisition of Mandarin aspectual marking in child Heritage speakers in the Netherlands (Unpublished MA thesis). Radboud University, Nijmegen.
Chen, J., & Shirai, Y.
(2010) The development of aspectual marking in Mandarin Chinese. Applied Psycholinguistics, 31, 1–28. Crossref link
Cheshire, J.
(1999) Taming the vernacular: Some repercussions for the study of syntactic variation and spoken grammar = Estandarizando la lengua vernácula: Algunas repercusiones para el estudio de la variación sintáctica y la gramática del habla. Cuadernos de filología inglesa, 8(1), 59–80.
Chomsky, N.
(1965) Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Christoffels, I. K., Firk, C., & Schiller, N. O.
(2007) Bilingual language control: An event-related brain potential study. Brain Research, 1147, 192–208. Crossref link
Clahsen, H., Meisel, J., & Pienemann, M.
(1983) Deutsch als Zweitsprache: Der Spracherwerb auslandischer Arbeiter. Tübingen: Narr.
Clark, H. H.
(1996) Using language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Clyne, M. G.
(1967) Transference and triggering: Observations on the language assimilation of postwar German-speaking migrants in Australia. Den Haag: Martinus Nijhoff.
(1970) Bilingual speech phenomena (with special reference to German-English bilinguals in Victoria). Kivung, 3(2), 99–111.
(1982) Multilingual Australia. Melbourne: River Seine.
(2000) Lingua Franca and ethnolects in Europe and beyond. Sociolinguistica, 14, 83–89. Crossref link
(2003) Dynamics of language contact. English and immigrant languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
(Ed.) (1976) Australia talks: Essays on Australian immigrant and aboriginal languages (Pacific Linguistics Series D, No. 23). Canberra: Australian National University.
Clyne, M. G., & Kipp, S.
(1999) Pluricentric languages in an immigrant context: Spanish, Chinese, Arabic. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref link
Cobarrubias, J.
(1983) Ethical issues in status planning. In J. Cobarrubias & J. Fishman (Eds.), Progress in language planning: International perspectives (pp. 41–85). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Cohen Henriquez, P.
(1934) De taal van Curaçao. Natuur en Mensch, 54(4–5), 31–34.
Cohen, R.
(1997) Global diasporas: An introduction. Seattle, WA: Washington University Press. Crossref link
Costa, A., & Santesteban, M.
(2004) Lexical access in bilingual speech production: Evidence from language switching in highly-proficient bilinguals and L2 learners. Journal of Memory and Language, 50, 491–511. Crossref link
Cremer, M., & Schoonen, R.
(2013) The role of accessibility of semantic word knowledge in monolingual and bilingual fifth-grade reading. Applied Psycholinguistics, 34(6), 1195–1217. Crossref link
Cummins, J.
(1981) The role of primary language development in promoting educational success for language minority students. In California State Department of Education (Ed.), Schooling and language minority students: A theoretical framework (pp. 3–49). Los Angeles, CA: Evaluation Dissemination and Assessment Center, California State University.
(1989) Empowering minority students. Sacramento, CA: California Association for Bilingualism Education.
(2005) A proposal for action: Strategies for recognizing heritage language competence as a learning resource within the mainstream classroom. Modern Language Journal, 89, 585–592.
Dal Negro, S.
(2004) The decay of a language: The case of a German dialect in the Italian Alps. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
Danesi, M.
(1984) Canadian Italian: A case in point of how language adapts to environment. Polyphony, 7, 110–113.
(1985) Ethnic languages and acculturation: The case of Italo-Canadians. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 17, 98–103.
De Houwer, A.
(1999) Environmental factors in early bilingual development: The role of parental beliefs and attitudes. In G. Extra & L. Verhoeven (Eds.), Bilingualism and migration (pp. 75–95). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref link
(2009) Bilingual first language acquisition. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. Crossref link
De Houwer, A., & Bornstein, M. H.
(2016) Bilingual mothers’ language choice in child-directed speech: continuity and change. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 37(7), 680–693. Crossref link
Dell, G. S., & Chang, F.
(2014) The P-chain: Relating sentence production and its disorders to comprehension and acquisition. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B., 369, 20120394. Crossref link
Deprez, C.
(1996) Politique linguistique familiale: Le rôle des femmes. In C. Juillard & L.-J. Calvet (Eds.), Politiques linguistiques, mythes et réalités (les). Actes des premières Journées scientifiques du réseau “Sociolinguistique et dynamique des langues” de l’AUF (pp. 155–161). Beyrouth: AUF.
Deuchar, M.
(2005) Congruence and Welsh–English code-switching. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 8(3), 255–269. Crossref link
Diaz, B., Baus, C., Escera, C., Costa, A., & Sebastian-Galles, N.
(2008) Brain potentials to native phoneme discrimination reveal the origin of individual differences in learning the sounds of a second language. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 105, 16083–16088. Crossref link
Dick, F., Bates, E., Wulfeck, B., Utman, J. A., Dronkers, N., & Gernsbacher, M. A.
(2001) Language deficits, localization, and grammar: Evidence for a distributive model of language breakdown in aphasic patients and neurologically intact individuals. Psychological Review, 108(4), 759–88. Crossref link
Dijkhoff, M.
(1993) Papiamentu word formation, a case study of complex nouns and their relation to phrases and clauses (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Amsterdam.
Dijkhoff, M., Kouwenberg, S., & Tjon Sie Fat, P.
(2006) The Dutch-speaking Caribbean. In U. Ammon, N. Dittmar, K. J. Mattheier, & P. Trudgill (Eds.), International handbook of sociolinguistics (pp. 2105–2114). Berlin: De Gruyter.
Dijkstra, A., & van Heuven, W. J. B.
(2002) The architecture of the bilingual word recognition system: From identification to decision. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 5, 175–197. Crossref link
Dijkstra, A.
(2005) Bilingual visual word recognition and lexical access. In J. F. Kroll, & A. de Groot (Eds.), Handbook of bilingualism: Psycholinguistic approaches (pp. 178–201). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dijkstra, A., Miwa, K., Brummelhuis, B., Sappelli, M., & Baayen, H.
(2010) How cross-language similarity and task demands affect cognate recognition. Journal of Memory and Language, 62, 284–301. Crossref link
Dijkstra, A., van Jaarsveld, H., & Ten Brinke, S.
(1998) Interlingual homograph recognition: Effects of task demands and language intermixing. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 1, 51–66. Crossref link
Dixon, R. M. W.
(1972) The Dyirbal language of North Queensland. Cambridge: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Doğruöz, A. S., & Backus, A. M.
(2009) Innovative constructions in Dutch Turkish: An assessment of ongoing contact-induced change. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12, 41–63. Crossref link
Doğruöz, A. S.
(2007) Synchronic variation and diachronic change in Dutch Turkish: A corpus based analysis (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Tilburg University.
Domínguez, L.
(2013) Understanding interfaces: second language acquisition and native language attrition of Spanish subject realization and word order variation. (Language Acquisition and Language Disorders; No. 55). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Domínguez, L., Hicks, G., & Slabakova, R.
(In press). Terminology use in generative acquisition research. The case if ‘incomplete acquisition’ in heritage language grammars. Studies in Second Language Acquisition.
Dorian, N. C.
(1981) Language death: The life cycle of a Scottish Gaelic ialect. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. Crossref link
(1998) Western language ideologies and small language prospects. In L. A. Grenoble & L. J. Whaley (Eds.), Endangered languages. Current issues and future prospects (pp. 3–21). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(Ed.) (1989) Investigating obsolescence: Studies in language contraction and death. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Dorleijn, M., & Nortier, J.
(2009) Code-switching and the internet. In B. E. Bullock, & A. J. Toribio (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of linguistic code switching, (pp. 127–141). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Dudek, J. B.
(1925) The Czech language in America. American Mercury, 5, 202–07.
Duranti, A.
(1994) From grammar to politics: Linguistic anthropology in a Western Samoan Village. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Durgunoglu, A., & Verhoeven, L.
(1998) Literacy development in a multilingual context. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Eckert, P.
(2008) Variation and the indexical field. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 12, 453–76. Crossref link
Eckkrammer, E. M.
(2004) Passive voice in Papiamento. A corpus-based study on dialectal variability. In G. Escure & A. Schwegler (Eds.), Creoles, contact, and language change: Linguistic and social implications (pp. 209–219). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
England, N. C.
(2003) Mayan language revival and revitalization politics: Linguists and linguistic ideologies. American Anthropologist, 105(4), 733–743. Crossref link
Ernestus, M.
(2000) Voice assimilation and segment reduction in casual Dutch: a corpus-based study of the phonology-phonetics interface. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). VU Amsterdam.
Espinosa, A.
(1930) Estudios sobre el Español de Nuevo Méjico. I, Fonética. Traducción y notas de Amado Alonso y Angel Rosenblat. Buenos Aires: Boletin de Dialectologia Hispanica.
(1946) Estudios sobre el Español de Nuevo Méjico. II. Morfología. Traducción y notas de Amado Alonso y Angel Rosenblat. Buenos Aires: Boletin de Dialectologia Hispanica.
Estigarribia, B.
(2015) Guaraní-Spanish mixing in Paraguay: Is jopara a third language, a language variety, or true codeswitching? Journal of Language Contact, 8(2), 183–222. Crossref link
Evans, N.
(2010) Dying words: Endangered languages and what they have to tell us. Walden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Evans, N., & Levinson, S.
(2009) The myth of language universals: Language diversity and its importance for cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 429–492. Crossref link
Evans Braziel, J., & Mannur, A.
(Eds.) (2003) Theorizing diaspora: A reader. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Eversteijn, N.
(2011) “All at once”. Language choice and codeswitching by Turkish-Dutch teenagers (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Tilburg University.
Extra, G.
(2002) The other languages of multicultural Europe: Perceptions, facts and educational policies. In S. Baker (Ed.). Language policy: Lessons from global models (pp. 130–151). Monterey, CA: Monterey Institute of International Studies.
(2013) Mapping increasing linguistic diversity in multicultural Europe and abroad. In D. M. Singleton, J. A. Fishman, L. Aronin, & M. Ó Laoire (Eds.), Current multilingualism: A new linguistic dispensation (pp. 139–162). Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. Crossref link
Extra, G., & Yagmur, K.
(2010) Language proficiency and socio-cultural orientation of Turkish and Moroccan youngsters in the Netherlands. Language and Education, 24(2), 117–132. Crossref link
Extra, G., & Verhoeven, L.
(Eds.) (1993) Community languages in the Netherlands. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.
(1998) Immigrant minority groups and immigrant minority languages in Europe. In G. Extra & L. Verhoeven (Eds.), Bilingualism and migration (pp. 3–28). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Extra, G., Aarts, R., van der Avoird, T., Broeder, P., & Yagmur, K.
(2002) De andere talen van Nederland. Thuis en op school. Bussum: Coutinho.
Eybers, G. J.
(1916) Testament Nobo di nos Señor y Salbador Jesu-Christo. Amsterdam: Nederlands Bijbel Genootschap.
Fenyvesi, A.
(1995/1996) The case of American Hungarian case: Morphological change in McKeesport, PA. Acta Linguistica Hungarica, 43, 381–404.
(Ed.) (2005) Hungarian language contact outside Hungary. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Ferguson, C. A.
(1959) Diglossia. Word, 15, 325–340. Crossref link
Fernández, E. M., Souza, R. A., & Carando, A.
(2017) Bilingual innovations: Experimental evidence offers clues regarding the psycholinguistics of language change. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 20, 2, 251–268. Crossref link
Ferreira, F.
(2003) The misinterpretation of non-canonical sentences. Cognitive Psychology, 47, 164–203. Crossref link
Fishman, J. A.
(1972) The sociology of language; An interdisciplinary social science approach to language in society. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
(1991) Reversing language shift: Theoretical and empirical foundations of assistance to threatened languages. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
(2001a) 300-plus years of heritage language education in the United States. In J. Kreeft Peyton, D. Ranard, & S. McGinnis (Eds.), Heritage languages in America. Preserving a national resource (pp. 81–97). Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics & Delta Systems.
(Ed.) (2001b) Can threatened languages be saved? Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. Crossref link
Flecken, M.
(2010) Event conceptualization in language production of early bilinguals (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Radboud University, Nijmegen.
Flege, J. E., MacKay, I. R., & Piske, T.
(2002) Assessing bilingual dominance. Applied Psycholinguistics, 23, 567–598. Crossref link
Flores, C., & Rato, A.
(2016) Global accent in the Portuguese speech of heritage returnees. Journal of Heritage Language, 13(2), 161–183.
Flores, C., Santos, A., Jesus, A., & Marques, R.
(2017) Age and input effects in the acquisition of mood in Heritage Portuguese. Journal of Child Language, 44(4), 795–828. Crossref link
Flores, N., & Toro, J.
(2000) The persistence of dialect features under conditions of contact and leveling. Southwest Journal of Linguistics, 19(2), 31–42.
Fodor, J. A.
(1983) Modularity of mind: An essay on faculty psychology. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Crossref link
Fokker, A. A.
(1914) Het Papiamentoe of basterd-spaans der West Indiese eilanden. Tijdschrift voor Nederlandse Taal en Letterkunde, 33, 54–79.
Fouse, G. C.
(2002) The story of Papiamentu: a study in slavery and language. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, Incorporated.
Frazier, L., & Clifton Jr., C.
(1996) Construal. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Fricke, M., & Kootstra, G. J.
(2016) Primed codeswitching in spontaneous bilingual dialogue. Journal of Memory and Language, 91, 181–201. Crossref link
Gal, S.
(1979) Language shift. New York,NY: Academic Press.
Garcia, O.
(2009) Bilingual education in the 21st Century: A global perspective. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Garrett, P. B.
(2005) What a language is good for: Language socialization, language shift, and the persistence of code-specific genres in St. Lucia. Language in Society, 34(3), 327–361. Crossref link
Gaskell, M. G.
(Ed.) (2007) The Oxford handbook of psycholinguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
Gass, S.
(1987) The resolution of conflicts among competing systems: A bidirectional perspective. Applied Psycholinguistics, 8, 329–50. Crossref link
Gathercole, V. C. Mueller, & Thomas, E. M.
(2009) Bilingual first-language development: Dominant language takeover, threatened minority language take-up. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12, 213–237. Crossref link
Geense, P., & Tsui, T. C.
(2001) Chinees. In G. Extra & J. J. de Ruiter (Eds.), Babylon aan de Noordzee. Nieuwe talen in Nederland (pp. 78–100). Amsterdam: Bulaaq.
Genesee, F., Nicoladis, E., & Paradis, J.
(1995) Language differentiation in early bilingual development. Journal of Child Language, 22(3), 611–63. Crossref link
Gershkoff-Stowe, L.
(2002) Object naming, vocabulary growth, and the development of word retrieval abilities. Journal of Memory and Language, 46, 665–687. Crossref link
Gertken, L. M., Amengual, M., Birdsong, D., & Birdsong, D.
(2014) Assessing language dominance with the Bilingual Language Profile. Measuring L2 proficiency: Perspectives from SLA. Second Language Acquisition, 78, 208–225.
Gibson, E., Piantadosi, S. T. & Fedorenko, K.
(2011) Using Mechanical Turk to obtain and analyze English acceptability judgments. Language and Linguistics Compass, 5(8), 509–524. Crossref link
Gijsberts, M., & J. Dagevos
(2005) Uit elkaars buurt. De invloed van etnische concentratie op integratie en beeldvorming. The Hague: SCP.
Gilbert, G. G.
(1965) English Loanwords in the German of Fredericksburg, Texas. American Speech, 40(2), 102–112. Crossref link
Giles, H., & P. Johnson
(1987) Ethnolinguistic identity theory: A social psychological approach to language maintenance. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 68, 69–100.
Giles, H., Bourhis, R. Y., & Taylor, D. M.
(1977) Towards a theory of language in ethnic group relations. In H. Giles (Ed.), Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations (pp. 307–348). London: Academic Press.
Givón, T.
(1979) Prolegomena to any sane creology. In Ian F. Hancock (Ed.), Readings in Creole studies (pp. 3–35). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Golato, A.
(2002) German compliment responses. Journal of Pragmatics, 34(5), 547–571. Crossref link
Gollan, T. H., & Goldrick, M.
(2016) Grammatical constraints on language switching: Language control is not just executive control. Journal of Memory and Language, 90, 177–199. Crossref link
Gollan, T. H., & Goldrick, M.
(2018) A switch is not a switch: Syntactically-driven bilingual language control. J. Exp. Psycho.l Learn. Mem. Cogn., 44(1), 143–156. Crossref link
Gollan, T. H., Montoya, R. I., Cera, C. & Sandoval, T. C.
(2008) More use almost always a means a smaller frequency effect: Aging, bilingualism, and the weaker links hypothesis. Journal of Memory and Language, 58(3), 787–814. Crossref link
Gollan, T. H., Starr, J., & Ferreira, V. S.
(2015) More than use it or lose it: The number-of-speakers effect on heritage language proficiency. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22(1), 147–155. Crossref link
Gonzo, S., & Saltarelli, M.
(1983) Pidginization and linguistic change in emigrant languages. In R. W. Andersen (Eds.), Pidginization and creolization as language acquisition (pp. 181–197). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Green, D. W.
(2011) Language control in different contexts: The behavioral ecology of bilingual speakers. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, article 103. Crossref link
Green, D. W., & Abutalebi, J.
(2013) Language control in bilinguals: The adaptive control hypothesis. Journal of cognitive psychology. Crossref link
Green, E.
(1961) English and Yiddish in Detroit. A survey and analysis of reciprocal influences in bilinguals’ pronunciation, grammar, and dictionary (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Grimshaw, J.
(1997) Projection, heads, and optimality. Linguistic Inquiry, 28, 373–422.
Grin, F.
(2003) Language policy evaluation and the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Crossref link
Grodzinsky, Y., & Reinhart, T.
(1993) The innateness of binding and coreference. Linguistic Inquiry, 24(1), 69–101.
Groot, A. M. B. de
(2011) Language and cognition in bilinguals and multilinguals: An introduction. New York, NY: Psychology Press. Crossref link
Grosjean, F.
(2001) The bilingual’s language modes. In J. L. Nicol (Ed.), One mind, two languages: Bilingual language processing (pp. 1–22). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Grosjean, F., & Ping Li
(2013) The psycholinguistics of bilingualism. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Grosjean, F.
(2008) Studying bilinguals. Oxford University Press.
Guanglun, M.
(2014) Learning Chinese as a heritage language in Australia and beyond: The role of capital. Language and Education, 28(5), 477–492. Crossref link
Guijarro-Fuentes, P., & Marinis, T.
(2011) Voicing language dominance. Acquiring Spanish by British English/Spanish bilingual children. In K. Potowski & J. Rothman (Eds.), Bilingual youth. Spanish in English-speaking societies (pp. 227–248). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Gullberg, M., Indefrey, P. & Muysken, P.
(2009) Research techniques for the study of codeswitching. In B. E. Bullock & A. J. Toribio (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of linguistic code-switching (pp. 21–39). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Gumperz, J. J.
(1982) Discourse strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Gutiérrez-Clellen, V. F., & Kreiter, J.
(2003) Understanding child bilingual acquisition using parent and teacher reports. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 267–288. Crossref link
Gynan, S.
(1998) Migration patterns and language maintenance in Paraguay. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 2(2), 59–70. Crossref link
Hale, K., Krauss, M., Watahomigie, L. J., Yamamoto, A. Y., Craig, C., LaVerne Masayesva, J., & England, N. C.
(1992) Endangered languages. Language, 68, 1–42.
Halmari, H.
(1997) Government and codeswitching. Explaining American Finnish. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Hammarström, H.
(2010) The status of the least documented language families in the world. Language Documentation and Conservation, 4, 177–212.
Hancock, A.
(2014) Chinese complementary schools in Scotland and the continua of biliteracy. In A. Hancock & X. L. Curdt-Christiansen (Eds.), Learning Chinese in diasporic communities: Many pathways to being Chinese (pp. 59–80). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Hanulová, J., Davidson, D. J., & Indefrey, P.
(2011) Where does the delay in L2 picture naming come from? Psycholinguistic and neurocognitive evidence on second language word production. Language and Cognitive Processes, 26, 902–934. Crossref link
Harrington, M.
(1987) Processing transfer: Language-specific processing strategies as a source of interlanguage variation. Applied Psycholinguistics, 8, 351–377. Crossref link
Harrison, B.
(2000) Passing on the language: Heritage language diversity in Canada. http://​www​.statcan​.gc​.ca​/pub​/11​-008​-x​/2000002​/article​/5165​-eng​.pdf (August 4 2015).
Hartling, A. S.
(2016) The ubiquitous Spanish se – Monoclausal reciprocal constructions in heritage Danish in Argentina. Presented at Sociolinguistics Symposium 21, Murcia, Spain.
Hartog, J.
(1968) Curaçao, from colonial dependence to autonomy. Aruba: De Wit.
Hartsuiker, R. J., & Pickering, M. J.
(2008) Language integration in bilingual sentence production. Acta Psychologica, 128, 479–489. Crossref link
Hartsuiker, R. J., Pickering, M. J., & Veltkamp, E.
(2004) Is syntax separate or shared between languages? Cross-linguistic syntactic priming in Spanish-English bilinguals. Psychological Science, 15, 409–414. Crossref link
Haspelmath, M.
(2008) A frequentist explanation of some universals of reflexive marking. Linguistic Discovery, 6(1), 40–63. Crossref link
Hatzidaki, A., Branigan, H. P., & Pickering, M. J.
(2011) Co-activation of syntax in bilingual language production. Cognitive Psychology, 62, 123–150. Crossref link
Haugen, E.
(1953) The Norwegian language in America: A study in bilingual behavior, I: The bilingual community. II: The American dialects of Norwegian. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. Crossref link
(1956) Bilingualism in the Americas: A bibliography and research guide (Publication 26 of the American Dialect Society). Birmingham, AL: University of Alabama Press.
He, A. W.
(2010) The heart of heritage: Sociocultural dimensions of heritage language learning. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 30, 66–82. Crossref link
He, A. W., & Yun, X.
(Eds.) (2008) Chinese as a Heritage Language: Fostering rooted world citizenry. Honolulu, HI: NFLRC/University of Hawaii Press.
Heine, B., & Kuteva, T.
(2003) On contact-induced grammaticalization. Studies in Language, 27(3), 529–572. Crossref link
Hell, J. G. van, & Dijkstra, A.
(2002) Foreign language knowledge can influence native language performance in exclusively native contexts. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 9, 780–789. Crossref link
Henzl, V.
(1982) American Czech: A comparative study of linguistic modifications in immigrant and young children’s speech. In R. Sussex (Ed.) Slavic languages in emigré communities (pp. 33–46). Edmonton, Alberta: Linguistic Research.
Hernandez Chavez, E., Cohen, A. D., & Beltrano, A. F.
(1975) El lenguaje de los Chicanos: Regional and social characteristics of language used by Mexican Americans. Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Hesseling, D. C.
(1933) Een Spaans boek over het Papiaments. Tijdschrift voor NederlandscheTaal- en Letterkunde, 52, 40–69.
Hill, J., & Hill, K.
(1986) Speaking Mexicano. Dynamics of syncretic language in Central Mexico. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.
Hlavac, J.
(2003) Second-generation speech: Lexicon, code-switching and morpho-syntax of Croatian-English bilinguals. Bern: Peter Lang.
(2012) Psycholinguistic, metalinguistic and socio–psychological accounts of code–switching: A comparative analysis of their incidence in a large Croatian–English sample. Suvremena lingvistika/Contemporary Linguistics, 73, 47–71.
Hoff, E., Rumiche, R., Burridge, A., Ribot, K. M., & Welsh, S. N.
(2014) Expressive Vocabulary Development in Children from Bilingual and Monolingual Homes: A Longitudinal Study from Two to Four Years. Early childhood research quarterly, 29(4), 433–444. Crossref link
Holm, J. A.
(1988) Pidgins and Creoles (2 Vols). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hornberger, N. H.
(1988) Bilingual education and language maintenance: A southern Peruvian case. Dordrecht: Foris. Crossref link
Hornberger, N. H., & Wang, S. C.
(2008) Who are our heritage language learners? Identity and biliteracy in heritage language education in the United States. In D. M. Brinton, O. Kagan, & S. Bauckus (Eds.), Heritage language education: A new field emerging (pp. 3–35). New York, NY: Routledge.
Hyams, N. M.
(1986) Language acquisition and the Theory of Parameters. Dordrecht: Reidel. Crossref link
Hyltenstam, K., Bylund, E., Abrahamsson, N., & Park, H.-S.
(2009) Dominant language replacement: The case of international adoptees. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12(2), 121–140. Crossref link
Indefrey, P., Şahin, H., & Gullberg, M.
(2017) The expression of spatial relationships in Turkish–Dutch bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 20(3), 473–493. Crossref link
Irizarri van Suchtelen, P.
(2016) Spanish as a heritage language in the Netherlands. A cognitive linguistic exploration (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Radboud University, Nijmegen.
Isac, D., & Reiss, C.
(2013) I-language: An introduction to linguistics as cognitive science (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press.
Jackendoff, R. S.
(1997) The architecture of the language faculty. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Jacobs, B.
(2009) The Upper Guinea origins of Papiamentu. Linguistic and historical evidence. Diachronica, 26(3), 319–379. Crossref link
(2011) The origin and originality of passivization in Papiamentu. Journal of Portuguese Linguistics, 10(2), 31–56. Crossref link
(2014) The phonological and morphosyntactic integration of Dutch loans in Papiamentu. Manuscript.
Jacobs, B. with M. van der Wal
(2015) The discovery, nature, and implications of a Papiamentu text fragment from 1783. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages, 30(1), 44–62. Crossref link
Jacobson, R.
(1977) The social implications of intra-sentential code-switching. New directions in Chicano scholarship (special issue). New Scholar, 6, 227–256.
Jakobson, R.
(1941) Kindersprache, Aphasie und allgemeine Lautgesetze. Uppsala, Sweden: Almqvist & Wiksell.
Jansen, B., Lalleman, J., & Muysken, P.
(1981) The alternation hypothesis: Acquisition of Dutch word order by Turkish and Moroccan foreign workers. Language Learning: A Journal of Applied Linguistics, 31, 315–336. Crossref link
Jarvis, S., & Pavlenko, A.
(2008) Crosslinguistic influence in language and cognition. New York, NY: Routledge. Crossref link
Jia, G., & Aaronson, D.
(2003) A longitudinal study of Chinese children and adolescents learning English in the US. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24(1), 131–163. Crossref link
Jia, G., Aaronson, D., & Wu, Y.
(2002) Long-term language attainment of bilingual immigrants: Predictive variables and language group differences. Applied Psycholinguistics, 23, 599–621. Crossref link
Johanson, L.
(1992) Strukturelle Faktoren in türkischen Sprachkontakten. (Sitzungsberichte der Wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft an der J. W. Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, 29:5). Stuttgart: Steiner.
(2002) Contact-induced linguistic change in a codecopying framework. In M. C. Jones, & E. Esch (Εds.), Language change: The interplay of internal, external and extra-linguistic factors (Contributions to the sociology of language, 86) (pp. 285–313). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
(2008) Remodeling grammar. Copying, conventionalization, grammaticalization. In P. Siemund & N. Kintana (Eds.), Language contact and contact languages (pp. 61–79). (Hamburg Studies on Multilingualism 7.) Amsterdam: Benjamins. Crossref link
Johnson, J. S. & Newport, E. L.
(1989) Critical period effects in second language learning: The influence of maturational state on the acquisition of English as a second language. Cognitive Psychology, 21, 60–99. Crossref link
Jonker, E. F.
(2009) Toen de Amboneesjes kwamen. Achtergrond, theorie en praktijk van het (bicultureel) onderwijs aan drie generaties Molukse kinderen in Nederland 1951–2008. In A. E. M. G. Minnaert, H. C. Lutje Spelberg, & H. T. A. Amsing (Eds.), Het pedagogisch quotiënt. Pedagogische kwaliteit in opvoeding, hulpverlening en educatie (pp. 229–260). Houten: Bohn, Stafleu, Van Loghum. Crossref link
Jørgensen, J. N.
(2003) Bilingualism and minority languages. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 159, 73–92.
Jørgersen, J. N.
(2008) Polylingual languaging around and among children and adolescents, I. International Journal of Multilingualism, 5(3), 161–176. Crossref link
Joubert, S. M.
(1999) Handwoordenboek Nederlands-Papiaments. Zutphen: Koninklijke Wöhrmann.
Jurafsky, D.
(2003) Probabilistic modeling in psycholinguistics: linguistic comprehension and production. In R. Bod, J. Hay, & S. Jannedy (Eds.) Probability Theory in linguistics (pp. 39–96). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Kagan, O., & Friedman, D.
(2003) Using the OPI to place heritage speakers of Russian. Foreign Language Annals, 36(4), 536–545. Crossref link
Kallmeyer, W., & Keim, I.
(2003) Linguistic variation and the construction of social identity in a German-Turkish setting. A case study of an immigrant youth group in Mannheim, Germany. In J. Androutsopoulos & A. Georgakopoulou (Eds.), Discourse constructions of youth identities (pp. 29–46). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Kasstan, J. R., Auer, A., & Salmons, J.
(2018) Heritage-language speakers: Theoretical and empirical challenges on sociolinguistic attitudes and prestige. International Journal of Bilingualism, 22(4), 387–394. Crossref link
Kehoe, M., Lleó, C., & Rakow, M.
(2004) Voice onset time in bilingual German-Spanish children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 7(1), 71–88. Crossref link
(2011) Speech rhythm in the pronunciation of German and Spanish monolingual and German-Spanish bilingual 3-year-olds. Linguistische Berichte, 227, 323–351.
Keijzer, M.
(2010a) First language acquisition and first language attrition: Parallels and divergences. Saarbrucken: Lambert Academic Publishing.
(2010b) The regression hypothesis as a theoretical framework for first language attrition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13(1), 9–18. Crossref link
Keim, I., & Cindark, I.
(2002) Der Umgang mit dem negativen Face in zwei jugendlichen Migrant Innengruppen: Gespielt aggressive vs. ironische Formen der Kritik. In D. Hartung & A. Shethar (Eds.), Kulturen und ihre Sprachen. Die Wahrnehmung anders Sprechender und ihr Selbstverständnis (pp. 57–86). Berlin: Trafo.
Kester, E.-P., & Fun, J.
(2012) Language use, language attitudes and identity among Aruban students in the Netherlands. In N. Faraclas, R. Severing, C. Weijer, & L. Echteld (Eds.), Multiplex cultures and citizenships (pp. 231–248). Curaçao: University of Curaçao /Fundashon pa Planifikashon di Idioma.
Kester, E.-P., & Hortencia, T. E.
(2010) Language use, language attitudes and identity among Curaçaoan students in the Netherlands. In N. Faraclas, R. Severing, C. Weijer, & E. Echteld (Eds.), Crossing shifting boundaries: Language and changing political status in Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao (pp. 49–66). Curaçao: University of Curaçao /Fundashon pa Planifikashon di Idioma.
King, K. A.
(2016) Language policy, multilingual encounters, and transnational families. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 37(7), 726–733. Crossref link
Klatter, J. A. K., & Kroon, S.
(Eds.) (1997) Dutch overseas: Studies in maintenance and loss of Dutch as an immigrant language. Tilburg: Tilburg University Press.
Klein, F.
(1980) A quantitative study of syntactic and pragmatic indications of change in the Spanish of bilinguals in the US. In W. Labov (Ed.), Locating language in time and space (pp. 69–82). London: Academia Press.
Klein, W., & Perdue, C.
(1992) Utterance structure: Developing grammars again. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Klein, W., & Dittmar, N.
(1979) Developing grammars, Berlin: Springer. Crossref link
Klooster, W., & Oostindie, G.
(2011) Curaçao in the age of revolutions, 1795–1800. Leiden: KITLV Press.
Knightly, L. M., Jun, S. A., Oh, J. S., & Au, T. K. F.
(2003) Production benefits of childhood overhearing. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 114(1), 465–474. Crossref link
Kontra, M.
(1998) The sociolinguistics of Hungarian outside Hungary project (Final Report to the Research Support Scheme). Budapest: Linguistics Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
(2006) Hungarian in- and outside Hungary. In U. Ammon, N. Dittmar, K. Mattheier, & P. Trudgill (Eds.), Sociolinguistics/Soziolinguistik (2nd completely revised and extended ed., Volume 3, pp. 1811–1818). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Kook, H., & Narain, G.
(1993) Papiamento. In G. Extra & L. Verhoeven (Eds.) Community languages in the Netherlands (pp. 69–92). Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.
Koontz Garboden, A.
(2004) Language contact and Spanish aspectual expression: A formal analysis. Lingua, 114, 1291–1330. Crossref link
Koornneef, A., Avrutin, S., Wijnen, F., & Reuland, E.
(2011) Tracking the preference for bound-variable dependencies in ambiguous ellipses and only-structures. In J. Runner (Ed.), Experiments at the interfaces (pp. 67–100). Bingley: Emerald.
Kootstra, G. J., Dijkstra, A., & Starren, M.
In J. D. Wright (Ed.) International encyclopedia of social and behavioral sciences (2015) Second language acquisition. (2nd ed., Vol. 21, pp. 349–359). Oxford: Elsevier. Crossref link
Kootstra, G. J., van Hell, J. G., & Dijkstra, A.
(2009) Two speakers, one dialogue. An interactive alignment perspective on code-switching in bilingual speakers. In L. Isurin, D. Winford, & K. de Bot (Eds.), Multidisciplinary approaches to code switching (pp. 129–159). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
(2012) Priming of code-switches in sentences: The role of lexical repetition, cognates, and language proficiency. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 797–819. Crossref link
Kootstra, G. J., & Doedens, W. J.
(2016) Cross-language interaction and convergence in bilingual sentence production: Immediate and long-lasting effects of structural priming and verb bias between languages. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 19(4), 710–732. Crossref link
Kootstra, G. J. & Rossi, E.
(2017) Moving beyond the priming of single-language sentences: A proposal for a comprehensive model to account for linguistic representation in bilinguals. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 40, e297. Crossref link
Kootstra, G. J., & Şahin, H.
(2018) Cross-language structural priming as a potential mechanism of contact-induced language change. Language, 94(4), 902–930. Crossref link
Kootstra, G. J., van Hell, J. G., & Dijkstra, A.
(2010) Syntactic alignment and shared word order in code-switched sentence production: Evidence from bilingual monologue and dialogue. Journal of Memory and Language, 63, 210–231. Crossref link
Kopeliovich, S.
(2010) Family language policy: A case study of a a Russian-Hebrew bilingual family – Toward a theoretical framework. Diaspora, Indigenous, and Minority Education, 4(3), 162–178. Crossref link
Kouwenberg, S., & Murray, E.
(1994) Papiamentu. Munich: Lincom.
Kouwenberg, S.
(1994) A grammar of Berbice Dutch Creole. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. Crossref link
Kovács, M.
(2001) Code-switching and language shift in Australian Finnish in comparison with Australian Hungarian. Åbo: Åbo Akademi University Press.
Kowallik, S., & Kramer, J.
(1994) Influencias del neerlandés en el papiamento. In J. Lüdtke & M. Perl (Eds.), Sprache und Kultur in der Karibik (pp. 147–165). Tübingen: Niemeyer.
Kramer, J.
(2004) Die iberoromanische Kreolsprache Papiamento. Hamburg: Helmut Buske.
Krauss, M. E.
(2007) Mass language extinction and documentation: The race against time. In O. Miyaoka, O. Sakiyama, & M. Krauss (Eds.), Vanishing languages of the Pacific Rim (pp. 3–24). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kroll, J. F., Bobb, S. C., & Wodniecka, Z.
(2006) Language selectivity is the exception, not the rule: Arguments against a fixed locus of language selection in bilingual speech. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 9, 119–135. Crossref link
Kroll, J. F., & Groot, A. M. B. de
(2005) Handbook of bilingualism: Psycholinguistic approaches. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kroll, J. F., Bogulski, C. A., McClain, R.
(2012) Psycholinguistic perspectives on second language learning and bilingualism: The course and consequence of cross-language competition. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 2, 1–24. Crossref link
Kroll, J. F., Bobb, S., & Hoshino, N.
(2014) Two Languages in Mind. Current directions in psychological science, 23, 159–163. Crossref link
Kuhl, P. K.
(2004) Early language acquisition: Cracking the speech code. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 5, 831–843. Crossref link
Kuhn, J.
(2001) Generation and parsing in optimality theoretic syntax – Issues in the formalization of OT-LFG. In P. Sells (Ed.) Formal and empirical issues in optimality-theoretic syntax (pp. 313–366). Stanford, CA: CSLI.
Kupisch, T.
(2013) A new term for a better distinction? A view from the higher end of the proficiency scale. Theoretical Linguistics, 39(3–4), 203–214.
(2014) Adjective placement in simultaneous bilinguals (German–Italian) and the concept of cross-linguistic overcorrection. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 17(1), 222–233. Crossref link
(2018) 2L1 simultaneous bilinguals as heritage speakers in morphosyntax and phonology. Introduction: Recent developments in early bilingualism. Bilingualism, 21(4), 653–655. Crossref link
Kupisch, T., Barton, D., Hailer, K., Kostogryz, E., Lein, T., Stangen, I., & van de Weijer, J.
(2015) Foreign accent in adult simultaneous bilinguals. Heritage Language Journal, 11(2), 123–150.
Kupisch, T., & Rothman, J.
(2018) Terminology matters! Why difference is not incompleteness and how early child bilinguals are heritage speakers. International Journal of Bilingualism, 22(5), 564–582. Crossref link
Kupisch, T., & van de Weijer, J.
(2016) The role of the childhood environment for language dominance: A study of adult simultaneous bilingual speakers of German and French. In J. Treffers-Daller & C. Silva-Corvalán (Eds.), Operationalising and measuring language dominance (pp. 174–194). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Kusters, W.
(2003) Linguistic complexity: The influence of social change on verbal inflection. Utrecht: LOT Dissertation Series.
La Morgia, F.
(2011) Who is afraid of multilingualism? Evaluating the linguistic impact of migration in Ireland. In M. Darmody, N. Tyrrell, & S. Song (Eds.), The changing faces of Ireland: Exploring the lives of immigrant and ethnic minority children (pp. 3–16). Rotterdam: SensePublishers. Crossref link
Labov, W.
(1972a) Some principles of linguistic methodology. Language in Society, 1, 97–120. Crossref link
(1972b) Sociolinguistic Patterns. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
(1989) The child as linguistic historian. Language Variation and Change, 1, 85–97. Crossref link
(1994) Principles of linguistic change, Vol. 1: Internal factors. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Laleko, O., & Kawamura, H.
(2011) Grammatical restructuring in intergenerational language shift: A case of heritage Japanese. Presented at The 56th Annual Conference of the International Linguistics Association 15–17 April, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ.
Laleko, O.
(2010) The syntax-pragmatics interface in language loss: Covert restructuring of aspect in heritage Russian (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
Laleko, O., & Polinsky, M.
(2016) Between syntax and discourse: Topic and case marking in heritage speakers and L2 learners of Japanese and Korean. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 6(4), 396–439. Crossref link
Lambert, W. E.
(1975) Culture and language as factors in learning and education. In A. Wolf-gang (Ed.), Education of immigrant students. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.
(1977) The effects of bilingualism on the individual: Cognitive and socio- cultural consequences. In P. A. Hornby (Ed.), Bilingualism: Psychological, social and educational implications (pp. 15–28). New York, NY: Academic Press.
(1981) Bilingualism and language acquisition. In H. Winitz (Ed.), Native language and foreign language acquisition (pp. 9–22). New York, NY: New York Academy of Science.
Langacker, R. W.
(1987) Foundations of cognitive grammar, Vol. I: Theoretical prerequisites. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
(2008) Cognitive grammar: A basic introduction. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
Lanza, E., & Ailin Svendsen, B.
(2007) Tell me who your friends are and I might be able to tell you what language(s) you speak: Social network analysis, multilingualism and identity. International Journal of Bilingualism, 11(3), 275–300. Crossref link
Lanza, E.
(1997) Language mixing in infant bilingualism. A sociolinguistic perspective. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Legendre, G., Putnam, M. T., de Swart, H., & Zaroukian, E.
(Eds.) (2016) Optimality-Theoretic Syntax, Semantics, and Pragmatics: From Uni- to Bidirectional Optimization (pp. 300–324). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
Lehtinen, M. K. T.
(1966) An analysis of a Finnish-English bilingual corpus (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington. Distributed by University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI.
Lein, T., Kupisch, T., & van de Weijer, J.
(2016) Voice onset time and global foreign accent in German–French simultaneous bilinguals during adulthood. International Journal of Bilingualism, 20(6), 732–74. Crossref link
Lenz, R.
(1928) El papiamento: La lengua criolla de Curazao. Santiago de Chile: Balcells & Cia.
Lestrade, S.
(2010) The space of case (Unpublished doctorial dissertation). Radboud University, Nijmegen.
Levelt, W. J. M.
(1989) Speaking: From intention to articulation. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Levelt, W. J. M., Roelofs, A., & Meyer, A. S.
(1999) A theory of lexical access in speech production. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22, 1–38; discussion 38–75. Crossref link
Levine, G.
(2000) First-language acquisition in the immigrant situation: Yiddish in the United States (Linguistische Arbeiten 426). Tübingen: Max Niemeyer.
Li, D.
(1999) The functions and status of English in Hong Kong: A post-1997 update. English World-Wide, 20(1), 67–110. Crossref link
Li, Wei
(1994) Three generations, two languages, one family. Language choice and language shift in a Chinese community in Britain. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
(2007) Dimensions of bilingualism. In Li Wei (Ed.), The bilingualism reader (2nd ed., pp. 3–22). London: Routledge.
(2011) Moment Analysis and translanguaging space: Discursive construction of identities by multilingual Chinese youth in Britain. Journal of Pragmatics, 43(5), 1222–1235. Crossref link
Li, Wei & W. Green, D. W.
(2014) A control process model of code-switching. Language and Cognitive Processes. 29. Crossref link
Li, Wei, & Zhu Hua
(2010) Voices from the diaspora: Changing hierarchies and dynamics of Chinese multilingualism. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 205, 155–171.
Lindsey, K. L.
(2013) How HALA and the BLP can be used for an earlier detection of language attrition in the Chuvash community. 3rd Annual International Conference of Language Documentation & Conservation. Manoa, Hawaii.
Linguistic Minorities Project
(1985) The other languages of England. London: Routledge.
Liu, H., Bates, E., & Li, P.
(1992) Sentence interpretation in bilingual speakers of English and Chinese. Applied Psycholinguistics, 13, 451–484. Crossref link
Liu, Na
(2013) The linguistic vitality of Chinese in the United States. Heritage Language Journal, 10, 1–11.
Lleó, C., & Kehoe, M.
(Eds.) (2002) On the interaction of phonological systems in child bilingual acquisition. International Journal of bilingualism, 6(3), 233–237. Crossref link
Lleó, C.
(2016) Bilingualism and child phonology. Oxford Handbooks Online, May. Crossref link
Lo Bianco, J.
(2008) Policy activity for heritage languages: Connections with representation and citizenship. In D. M. Brinton, O. Kagan, & S. Bauckus (Eds.), Heritage language education: A new field emerging (pp. 53–69). New York, NY: Routledge.
Lobo, V. R.
(2013) L2 teaching at a very early age: A study of Dutch schools. Utrecht: LOT.
Loebell, H., & Bock, J. K.
(2003) Structural priming across languages. Linguistics, 41, 791–824. Crossref link
Los, B. L. J., & Starren, M.
(2013) A typological switch in early Modern English – and the beginning of one in Dutch? Leuvense Bijdragen. Tijdschrift voor Germaanse Filologie, 98, 98–126.
Louden, M. L.
(2016) Pennsylvania Dutch. The story of an American language. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Lynch, A.
(2013) Observaciones sobre comunidad y (dis)continuidad en el estudio sociolingüístico del español en Estados Unidos. In D. Dumitrescu & G. Piña-Rosales (Eds.), El español en los Estados Unidos: E pluribus unum? Enfoques multidisciplinarios (pp. 67–83). New York, NY: Academia Norteamericana de la Lengua Española.
(2014) The first decade of the Heritage Language Journal: A retrospective view of research on heritage languages. Heritage Language Journal, 11(3), 224–242.
Lyra, F.
(1962) English and Polish in Contact (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington. Distributed by University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI.
Maduro, A. J.
(1953) Ensayo pa yega na un ortografia uniforme pa nos Papiamentu. Curaçao: Scherpenheuvel.
Mahon, M., & Crutchley, A.
(2006) Performance of typically-developing school-age children with English as an additional language on the British Picture Vocabulary Scales II. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 22(3), 333–351. Crossref link
Makihara, M.
(2001) Modern Rapa Nui adaptation of Spanish elements. Oceanic Linguistics, 40, 191–223. Crossref link
Manosuthikit, A.
(2013) Language ideologies and practices of a Burmese community in the US: A critical perspective on multilingualism (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Maratsos, M.
(2000) More overregularisations after all: New data and discussion on Marcus, Pinker, Ullman, Hollander, Rosen & Xu. Journal of Child Language, 27, 183–212. Crossref link
Martinus, E. F.
(1990) Papiamentu: Road to emancipation. In C. Hagège (Ed.), Language reform: History and future (Vol. 5, pp. 127–147). Hamburg: Helmut Buske.
(1996) The kiss of a slave: Papiamentu’s West-African connections (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Maschler, Y.
(1998) On the transition from code-switching to a mixed code. In P. Auer (Ed.), Code-switching in conversation (pp. 125–149). London: Routledge.
Matras, Y.
(1998) Utterance modifiers and universals of grammatical borrowing. Linguistics, 36(2), 281–331. Crossref link
(2009) Language contact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Maurer, P.
(1998) Les modifications temporelles et modales du verbe dans le Papiamento de Curaçao (Antilles Néerlandaises). Hamburg: Helmut Buske.
Mayer, M.
(1969) Frog, where are you? (A boy, a dog, and a frog). New York, NY: Dial Books.
McDonald, J. L.
(1987) Sentence interpretation in bilingual speakers of English and Dutch. Applied Psycholinguistics, 8, 379–413. Crossref link
Meara, P., Milton, J., & Lorenzo-Dus, N.
(2003) Swansea Language Aptitude Tests (LAT) v2.0. Swansea: Lognostics.
Meara, P.
(2005) LLAMA language aptitude tests: The manual. Swansea: Lognostics.
Meisel, J. M.
(1989) Early differentiation of languages in bilingual children. Bilingualism across the lifespan: Aspects of acquisition, maturity and loss (pp. 13–40). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Meisel, J.
(2014) Heritage language learners: Incomplete acquisition of grammar in early childhood. In A. Enrique-Arias, M. J. Gutiérrez, A. Landa, & F. Ocampo (Eds.), Perspectives in the study of Spanish language variation (pp. 429–454). Santiago de Compostela: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela.
Mencken, H. L.
(1936) [1947]The American language (4th ed.). New York, NY: Knopf.
Meuter, R. F. I., & Allport, A.
(1999) Bilingual language switching in naming: Asymmetrical costs of language selection. Journal of Memory and Language, 40, 25–40. Crossref link
Meuter, R.
(2005) Language selection in bilinguals: Mechanisms and processes. In J. F. Kroll, A. M. B. de Groot (Eds.), Handbook of bilingualism: Psycholinguistic approaches (pp. 349–370). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(2009) Language selection and performance optimisation in multilinguals. In A. Pavlenko (Ed.), Multidisciplinary approaches to code switching (pp. 27–51). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. Crossref link
Milroy, L., & Li, Wei
(1995) A social network perspective on code-switching and language choice: The example of the Tyneside Chinese community. In L. Milroy & P. Muysken (Eds.), One speaker, two languages: Cross-disciplinary perspectives on code-switching (pp. 136–157). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Montrul, S.
(2004a) Subject and object expression in Spanish heritage speakers: A case of morphosyntactic convergence. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 7(2), 125–142. Crossref link
(2004b) The acquisition of Spanish. Morphosyntactic development in monolingual and bilingual L1 acquisition and in adult L2 acquisition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
(2008) Incomplete acquisition in bilingualism: Re-examining the age factor. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
(2010) Dominant language transfer in adult second language learners and heritage speakers. Second Language Research, 26(3), 293–327. Crossref link
(2011) Morphological errors in Spanish second language learners and heritage speakers. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 33(2), 163–192. Crossref link
(2016) The acquisition of heritage languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Montrul, S., & Potowski, K.
(2007) Command of gender agreement in school-age Spanish bilingual children. International Journal of Bilingualism, 11(3), 301–328. Crossref link
Montrul, S., & Bowles, M.
(2009) Back to basics: Incomplete knowledge of Differential Object Marking in Spanish heritage speakers. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12(3), 363–383. Crossref link
Montrul, S., Bhatt, R., & Bhatia, A.
(2012) Erosion of case and agreement in Hindi heritage Speakers. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 2, 141–176. Crossref link
Montrul, S., & Sánchez-Walker, N.
(2013) Differential Object Marking in child and adult Spanish heritage speakers. Language Acquisition, 20, 109–132. Crossref link
Moro, F.
(2016) Dynamics of Ambon Malay: Comparing Ambon and the Netherlands (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Radboud University, Nijmegen.
Moro, F., & Klamer, M.
(2015) Give-constructions in Heritage Ambon Malay in the Netherlands. Journal of Language Contact, 8(2), 263–198. Crossref link
Mota, C. A.
(1997) The maintenance of Portuguese as a heritage language in Winnipeg (Unpublished MA thesis). University of Manitoba, Winnipeg.
Müller, N., & Hulk, A.
(2001) Crosslinguistic influence in bilingual language acquisition: Italian and French as recipient languages. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 4(1), 1–21. Crossref link
Muysken, P.
(1997) Older studies on migrant languages in the United States: A model for European research? In A. Melis & P. Weber (Eds.), Festschrift 20 jaar Onderzoekscentrum voor Meertaligheid (pp. 238–247). Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
(2000) Bilingual speech. A typology of code-mixing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(2002) Uchumataqu: Research in progress on the Bolivian Altiplano. International Journal on Multicultural Societies, 4, 235–237.
(2008) Functional Categories. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
(2010a) Scenarios for language contact. In R. Hickey (Ed.), Handbook of language contact (pp. 265–281). Oxford: Blackwell. Crossref link
(2010b) The demise and attempted revival of Uchumataqu (Uru). In J. A. Flores Farfán, & F. Ramallo (Eds.), New perspectives on endangered languages. Bridging gaps between sociolinguistics, documentation and language revitalization (pp. 93–118). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
(2013) Language contact outcomes as the result of bilingual optimization strategies. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16(4), 709–730. Crossref link
(2016) From Colombo to Athens: An areal perspective on bilingual compound verbs. Languages. Mixed verbs and linguistic creativity in bi/multilingual communities. Languages. 1(1), 2. Crossref link
Muysken, P., Kook, H., & P. Vedder
(1996) Papiamento/Dutch code-switching in bilingual parent-child reading. Applied Psycholinguistics, 17, 485–505. Crossref link
Myers-Scotton, C.
(1993) Duelling languages: Grammatical structure in codeswitching. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
(2006) Natural code-switching knocks on the laboratory door. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 9, 203–212. Crossref link
Nagy, N., & Reynolds, B.
(1997) Optimality theory and variable word-final deletion in Faetar. Language Variation and Change, 9(1), 37–56. Crossref link
Nagy, N.
(2011) A multilingual corpus to explore geographic variation. Rassegna Italiana di Linguistica Applicata, 43(1–2), 65–84.
(2015) A sociolinguistic view of null subjects and VOT in Toronto heritage languages. Lingua, 164, 309–327. Crossref link
Nagy, N., Chociej, J., & Hoffman, M. F.
(2014) Analyzing ethnic orientation in the quantitative sociolinguistic paradigm. Language & Communication, 35, 9–26. Crossref link
Nichols, J. M.
(1992) Linguistic diversity in space and time. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Crossref link
Nortier, J.
(1990) Dutch-Moroccan Arabic code-switching among young Moroccans in the Netherlands, Dordrecht: Foris.
(2012) “The more languages, the more English?”: A Dutch perspective. In A. De Houwer & A. Wilton (Eds.), English in Europe today. Sociocultural and educational perspectives (pp. 113–132). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
O’Grady, W.
(2011) Interfaces and processing. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 1, 63–66. Crossref link
O’Grady, W., Schafer, A., Perla, J., Lee, On-Soon, & Wieting, J.
(2009) A psycholinguistic tool for the assessment of language loss: The HALA project. Language Documentation & Conservation, 3(1), 100–112.
O’Grady, W., Kwak, H.-Y., Lee, O.-S., & Lee, M.
(2011) An emergentist perspective on Heritage Language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 33(2), 223–245. Crossref link
Odlin, T.
(1989) Language transfer: Cross-linguistic influence in language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Oh, J., S. Jun, Knightly, L., & Au, T.
(2003) Holding on to childhood language memory. Cognition, 86(3), B53–64. Crossref link
Oller, D. K., & Eilers, R. E.
(Eds) (2002) Language and literacy in bilingual children. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.. Crossref link
Onar Valk, P.
(2015) Transformation in Dutch Turkish subordination?: Converging evidence of change regarding finiteness and word order in complex clauses (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Tilburg University.
Oostindie, G.
(1995) Taal, geschiedenis en Antilliaanse identiteiten. In H. E. Coomans, M. Coomans-Eustatia, & P. Prins (Eds.) Caraïbische cadens. Liber amicorum opgedragen aan de Gevolmachtigde Minister van de Nederlandse Antillen Edsel A.V. [Papy] Jesurun (pp. 148–153). Bloemendaal: Stichting Libri Antilliani.
(2008) Migration and its legacies in the Dutch colonial world. In G. Oostindie (Ed.), Dutch colonialism, migration and cultural heritage (pp. 1–23). Leiden: KITLV Press. Crossref link
Orellana, M. F. Faulstich, & D’warte, J.
(2010) A different kind of head start: Response to the early reading panel report. Educational Researcher, 39(4), 295–300. Crossref link
Oriyama, K.
(2017) Reforming Australian policy for Chinese, Indonesian, Japanese, and Korean heritage languages: Examples from the Japanese community. In O. Kagan, M. Carreira, & C. Hitchins Chik (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of heritage language education: From innovation to program building (pp. 265–281). London: Routledge. Crossref link
Ortega, L.
(2014) Ways forward for a bi/multilingual turn in SLA. In S. May (ed.), The multilingual turn: Implications for SLA, TESOL, and bilingual education (pp. 32–53). New York, NY: Routledge.
(2016) Multi-competence in second language acquisition: Inroads into the mainstream? In V. Cook & L. Wei (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of linguistic multi-competence (pp. 50–76). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Ortega, L., & Byrnes, H.
(2010) The longitudinal study of advanced L2 capacities. Modern Language Journal, 94(1), 157–158. Crossref link
Osch, B. van, Hulk, A., Sleeman, P., & Aalberse, S.
(2015) Heritage speakers’ knowledge of Spanish mood: Interfaces or variability. Presented at Bilingualism in the Hispanic and Lusophone World (BHL), Leiden University, 15 January.
Osch, B. van, & Sleeman, P.
(2018) Spanish heritage speakers in the Netherlands: Linguistic patterns in the judgment and production of mood. International Journal of Bilingualism, 22(5), 513–529. Crossref link
Osch, B. van, Hulk, A., Sleeman, P., & Irizarri van Suchtelen, P.
(2014) Gender agreement in interface contexts in the oral production of heritage speakers of Spanish in the Netherlands. In A. Auer & B. Köhnlein (Eds.), Linguistics in the Netherlands 2014 (Vol. 31., pp. 93–106). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Pap, L.
(1949) Portuguese American speech. An outline of speech conditions among Portuguese immigrants in New England and elsewhere in the United States. New York, NY: Columbia University, King’s Crown Press. Distributed by University Microfilms. Ann Arbor, MI 1979.
Paradis, C. & Prunet, J.-F.
(1991) Phonetics and phonology, 2: The special status of coronals: Internal and external evidence. New York, NY: Academic Press.
Paradis, J., & Genesee, F.
(1996) Syntactic acquisition in bilingual children. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18(1), 1–25. Crossref link
Paradis, M.
(2007) L1 attrition features predicted by a neurolinguistic theory of bilingualism. In B. Köpke, M. S. Schmid, M. Keijzer, & S. Dostert (Eds.), Language attrition. Theoretical perspectives (pp. 121–133). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Pauwels, A.
(2005) Maintaining the community language in Australia: Challenges and roles for families. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 8(2–3), 24–131.
Pavlenko, A., & Jarvis, S.
(2002) Bidirectional transfer. Applied Linguistics, 23(2), 190–214. Crossref link
Peeters, D., Dijkstra, A., & Grainger, J.
(2013) The representation and processing of identical cognates by late bilinguals: RT and ERP effects. Journal of Memory and Language, 68, 315–332. Crossref link
Perfetti, C. A., & Hart, L.
(2002) The lexical quality hypothesis. In L. Verhoeven, C. Elbro, & P. Reitsma (Eds.), Precursors of functional literacy (pp. 189–213). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Pfaff, C.
(1979) Constraints on language-mixing: Intrasentential code-switching and borrowing in Spanish/English. Language, 55, 291–318. Crossref link
(1994) Early bilingual development of Turkish children in Berlin. In. G. Extra & L. Verhoeven (Eds.), The cross-linguistic study of bilingual development (pp. 75–97). Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Phillips, C.
(2013) Some arguments and non-arguments for reductionist accounts of syntactic phenomena. Language and Cognitive Processes, 28, 156–187. Crossref link
Piantadosi, S. T., Tily, H., & Gibson, E.
(2011) Word lengths are optimized for efficient communication. PNAS, 108(9), 3526–3529. Crossref link
Pickering, M. J., & Garrod, S.
(2004) Toward a mechanistic psychology of dialogue. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 27, 169–190; discussion 190–226. Crossref link
Pickering, M. J., & Branigan, H. P.
(1998) The representation of verbs: Evidence from syntactic persistence in written language production. Journal of Memory & Language, 39, 633–651. Crossref link
Pierce, M., Boas, H. C., & Roesch, K. A.
(2015) The history of front rounded vowels in New Braunfels German. In J. Bondi Johannessen & J. C. Salmons (Eds.), Germanic heritage languages in North America (pp. 117–132). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Pires, A., & Rothman, J.
(2009) Disentangling sources of incomplete acquisition: An explanation for competence divergence across heritage grammars. International Journal of Bilingualism, 13(2), 11–238. Crossref link
Place, S., & Hoff, E.
(2011) Properties of dual language exposure that influence 2-year-olds’ bilingual proficiency. Child Development, 82, 1834–1849. Crossref link
Polinsky, M.
(2006) Incomplete acquisition: American Russian. Journal of Slavic Linguistics, 14, 191–262.
(2008a) Gender under incomplete acquisition: Heritage speakers’ knowledge of noun categorization. Heritage Language Journal, 6(1), 40–71.
(2008b) Heritage language narratives. In D. M. Brinton, O. Kagan & S. Bauckus (Eds.), Heritage language education: A new field emerging (pp. 149–164). London: Routledge.
(2008c) Relative clauses in heritage Russian: Fossilization or divergent grammar? Formal Approaches to Slavic Linguistics, 16, 333–358. Ann Arbor, MI: Michigan Slavic Publications.
(2011) Reanalysis in adult heritage language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 33(2), 305–328. Crossref link
(2018a) Heritage languages and their speakers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
(2018b) Bilingual children and adult heritage speakers: The range of comparison. International Journal of Bilingualism, 22(5), 547–563. Crossref link
Polinsky, M., & Kagan, O.
(2007) Heritage languages: In the ‘wild’ and in the classroom. Language and Linguistics Compass, 1(5), 368–395. Crossref link
Poplack, S.
(1980) Sometimes I’ll start a sentence in Spanish Y TERMINO EN ESPAÑOL: Toward a typology of code-switching. Linguistics, 18, 581–618. Crossref link
(2017) Borrowing. Loanwords in the speech community and in the Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
Poplack, S., Sankoff, D., & Miller, C.
(1988) The social correlates and linguistic processes of lexical borrowing and assimilation. Linguistics, 26(1), 47–104. Crossref link
Poplack, S., Zentz, L., & Dion, N.
(2012) Phrase-final prepositions in Quebec French: An empirical study of contact, code-switching and resistance to convergence. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15(2), 203–225. Crossref link
Postma, J.
(1974) The origin of African slaves: The Dutch activities on the Guinea coast, 1675–1795. In S. L. Engerman & E. D. Genovese (Eds.), Race and slavery in the Western hemisphere: Quantitative studies (pp. 33–49). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Poulisse, N., & Bongaerts, T.
(1994) First language use in second language production. Applied Linguistics, 15, 36–57. Crossref link
Prada Pérez de, A., & Pascual y Cabo, D.
(2012) Interface heritage speech across proficiencies: Unaccusativity, focus, and subject position in Spanish. In K. Geeslin & M. Díaz-Campos (Eds.), Selected proceedings from the Hispanic Linguistics Symposium 2010 (pp. 308–318). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
Prince, A., & Smolensky, P.
(2004) Optimality theory: Constraint interaction in generative grammar. Oxford: Blackwell. Crossref link
Prince, J. Dyneley
(1913) A text in Jersey Dutch. Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsche Taal en Letterkunde, 32, 306–312.
Putman, J. J.
(1849) Proeve eener Hollandsche spraakkunst, ten gebruike der algemeene armenschool. Curaçao: Author’s edition.
Putnam, M.
(2019) The (in)stability of grammars. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 41(2), 275–278. Crossref link
Putnam, M., & Sánchez, L.
(2013) What’s so incomplete about incomplete acquisition? A prolegomenon to modeling heritage language grammars. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 3(4), 476–506. Crossref link
Putnam, M., Kupisch, T., Pascual y Cabo, D.
(2018) Heritage grammars across the lifespan. In D. Miller, F. Bayram, J. Rothman, & L. Serratrice (Eds.), Bilingual cognition and language: The state of the science across its subfields (pp. 251–280). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Putnam, M., Perez-Cortes, S., & Sánchez, L.
(2019) Language attrition and the Feature Reassembly Hypothesis. In M. Schmid & B. Köpke (Eds.), Oxford handbook of language attrition (pp. 18–24). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Putte, F. van, & van Putte-de Windt, I.
(2005) Dikshonario Papiamentu-Hulandes; Hulandes-Papiamentu. Zutphen: Walburg Pers.
Putte, F. van
(1999) Dede pikiña ku su bisiña: Papiamentu-Nederlands en de onverwerkt verleden tijd. Zutphen: Walburg Pers.
Queen, R.
(2012) Turkish German bilinguals and their intonation: Triangulating evidence about contact-induced language change. Language, 88(4), 791–816. Crossref link
Quint, N.
(2000) Le capverdien: Origines et devenir d’une languemétisse. Paris: l’Harmattan.
Ratzlaff, B.
(2008) Dikshonario Papiamentu – Ingles Dikshonario. Bonaire: TWA Dictionary Foundation.
Rehbein, J., Herkenrath, A., & Karakoc, B.
(2009a) Corpus Rehbein-SKOBI (sprachliche konnektivität bei bilingual türkisch-deutsch aufwachsenden kindern und jugendlichen).
Rehbein, J., Herkenrath, A., & Karakoç, B.
(2009b) Turkish in Germany on contact-induced language change of an immigrant language in the multilingual landscape of europe. STUF-Language Typology and Universals Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung, 62(3), 171–204.
Reinhart, T.
(1983) Anaphora and semantic interpretation. London: Croom Helm.
(2006) Interface strategies: Reference-set computation. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Crossref link
Reuland, E. J.
(2011) Anaphora and language design. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Rickford, J., & Price, M.
(2013) Girlz II women: Age-grading, language change and stylistic variation. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 17(2), 143–179. Crossref link
Riehl, C.
(2015) Language attrition, language contact and the concept of relic variety: The case of Barossa German. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 236, 261–293.
Riggenbach, H.
(1991) Toward an understanding of fluency: A microanalysis of non-native speaker conversations. Discourse Processes, 14(4), 423–441. Crossref link
Ritter, A.
(2014) Bilingual speech in Russian-German language contact: Findings based on an analysis of natural conversations in Russian-speaking immigrant families in Germany. In H. Paulasto, L. Meriläinen, H. Riionheimo, & M. Kok (Eds.), Language contacts at the crossroads of disciplines (pp. 251–279). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars.
Rivera-Gaxiola, M., Silva-Pereyra, J., & Kuhl, P. K.
(2005) Brain potentials to native and non-native speech contrasts in 7- and 11-month-old American infants. Developmental Science, 8, 162–172. Crossref link
Robertson, I.
(1983) The Dutch linguistic legacy and the Guyana/Venezuela border question. Boletín de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe, 34, 75–97.
Robins, R. H., & Uhlenbeck, E. M.
(Eds.) (1991) Endangered languages. Oxford: Berg Publishers.
Rooij, V. de
(1996) Cohesion through contrast: Discourse structure in Shaba Swahili/French conversations (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Amsterdam.
Rothman, J.
(2007) Heritage speaker competence differences, language change and input type: Inflected infinitives in Heritage Brazilian Portuguese. International Journal of Bilingualism, 11(4), 359–389. Crossref link
(2009) Understanding the nature and outcomes of early bilingualism: Romance languages as heritage languages. International Journal of Bilingualism, 13(2), 155–163. Crossref link
Rubin, J.
(1962) Bilingualism in Paraguay. Anthropological Linguistics, 4, 52–58.
Rupert, L.
(2012) Creolization and contraband: Curaçao in the early modern Atlantic world. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
Sabino, R.
(2012) Language contact in the Danish West Indies: Giving Jack his jacket. Leiden: Brill. Crossref link
Şahin, H.
(2015) Cross-linguistic influences: Dutch in contact with Papiamento & Turkish (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Radboud University, Nijmegen.
Sakuma, T.
(2013) Performing “Japanese” in Brazil: Language ideologies in a Japanese Brazilian cultural association in Sao Paulo, Brazil (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Texas at Austin.
Salmons, J. C.
(1990) Bilingual Discourse Marking: Codeswitching, borrowing and convergence in some German-American Dialects. Linguistics 28, 453–480.
Sanchez, T.
(2005) Constraints on structural borrowing in a multilingual contact situation (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Pennsylvania.
Sarhimaa, A.
(1999) Syntactic transfer, contact-induced change, and the evolution of bilingual mixed codes: Focus on Karelian-Russian language alternation (Studia Fennica Linguistica 9). Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society.
Sauer, M.
(2010) Mediennutzungsmotive türkeistämmiger Migranten in Deutschland. Publizistik, 55, 55–76. Crossref link
Schaufeli, A.
(1991) Turkish in an immigrant setting, A comparative study of the first language of monolingual and bilingual immigrant children (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Amsterdam.
Scheele, A. F., Leseman, P. P. M., & Mayo, A. Y.
(2010) The home language environment of mono- and bilingual children and their language proficiency. Applied Psycholinguistics, 31, 117–140. Crossref link
Schmid, M. S.
(2002) First language attrition, use and maintenance: The case of German Jews in Anglophone countries. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
(2007) Language attrition: Theoretical perspectives. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
(2009) On L1 attrition and the linguistic system. Eurosla Yearbook, 9, 212–244. Crossref link
(2011) Language attrition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
(2012) The impact of age and exposure on forgetting and retention of the birth language in international adoptees: A perspective from Holocaust survivors. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 2(2), 177–208. Crossref link
Schmid, M. S., & Dusseldorp, E.
(2010) Innovative and quantitative methods for bilingualism research. Second Language Research, 26(1), 5–11. Crossref link
Schmidt, A.
(1985) Young people’s Dyirbal: An example of language death from Australia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schoenmakers-Klein Gunnewiek, M.
(1997) Dutch language loss and the Conceptual Hypothesis. In J. Klatter-Folmer & S. Kroon (Eds.), Dutch overseas: Studies in maintenance and loss of Dutch as an immigrant language (pp. 99–119). Tilburg: Tilburg University Press.
(1998) Taalverlies door taalcontact? Een onderzoek bij Portugese migranten (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Tilburg University.
Schoonbaert, S., Hartsuiker, R. J., & Pickering, M. J.
(2007) The representation of lexical and syntactic information in bilinguals: Evidence from syntactic priming. Journal of Memory and Language, 56, 153–171. Crossref link
Schüpbach, D.
(2009) Language transmission revisited: Family type, linguistic environment and language attitudes. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 12(1), 15–30. Crossref link
Schwartz, B. D.
(2006) What’s left in early L2 architecture. Second Language, 5, 3–26.
Schwartz, M., & Verschik, A.
(2013) Achieving success in family language policy: Parents, children and educators in interaction. In M. Schwartz & A. Verschik (Eds.), Successful family language policy. Parents, children and educators in interaction (pp. 1–23). Dordrecht: Springer. Crossref link
Schwartz, R. G., & Terrell, B. T.
(1983) The role of input frequency in early lexical acquisition. Journal of Child Language, 9, 57–64. Crossref link
Seaman, P. D.
(1972) Modern Greek and American English. The Hague: Mouton.
Sebba, M.
(1993) London Jamaican: Language systems in interaction. London: Longman.
Sevinç, Y., & Backus, A.
(2017) Anxiety, language use and linguistic competence in an immigrant context: a vicious circle?. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Crossref link
Sherkina-Lieber, M.
(2015) Tense, aspect, and agreement in heritage Labrador Inuttitut: Do receptive bilinguals understand functional morphology? Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 5(1), 30–61. Crossref link
Shi, Menghui
(2011) A study of mood particle in the Suzhou Dialect in Qing dynasty. The Research of Wu Dialect, 6, 256–269.
Shin, S. J.
(2002) Birth order and the language experience of bilingual children. Tesol Quarterly 36(1), 103–113. Crossref link
Silva-Corvalán, C.
(1994) Language contact and change: Spanish in Los Angeles. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
(2014) Bilingual language acquisition: Spanish and English in the first six years. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
(2018) Simultaneous bilingualism: Early developments, incomplete later outcomes?. International Journal of Bilingualism, 22(5), 497–512. Crossref link
Silva-Corvalán, C., & Treffers-Daller, J.
(Eds.) (2016) Language dominance in bilinguals: Issues of measurement and operationalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Skutnabb-Kangas, T.
(2002) When languages disappear, are bilingual education and human rights a cure? Two scenarios. In Li Wei, J.-M. Dewaele, & A. Housen (Eds.), Opportunities and challenges of bilingualism (pp. 45–67). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref link
Skutnabb-Kangas, T., Phillipson, R., & Rannut, M.
(1994) Linguistic human rights: Overcoming linguistic discrimination. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Smits, C.
(1996) Disintegration of inflection: The case of Iowa Dutch (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.
Smits, E., Martensen, H., Dijkstra, A., & Sandra, D.
(2006) Naming interlingual homographs: Variable competition and the role of the decision system. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 9, 281–297. Crossref link
Sorace, A.
(2011) Pinning down the concept of “interface” in bilingualism. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 1(1), 1–33. Crossref link
Spolsky, B.
(2009) Language management. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Sprouse, J.
(2011) A validation of Amazon Mechanical Turk for the collection of acceptability judgments in linguistic theory. Behavior Research Methods, 43, 155–167. Crossref link
Stansfield, C., & Hansen, J.
(1983) Field dependence-independence as a variable in second language Cloze Test performance. Tesol Quarterly, 17(1), 29–38. Crossref link
Steensig, J.
(2001) Some notes on the use of conversation analysis in the study of bilingual interaction. In J. N. Jørgensen (Ed.), Multilingual behavior in youth groups: Scandinavian studies in the simultaneous use of two or more languages in group conversations among children and adolescents (pp. 55–79). Copenhagen: Copenhagen Studies of Bilingualism.
Swadesh, M.
(1971) The origin and diversification of language, J. Sherzer (Ed.), Post mortem. Chicago, IL: Aldine.
Tahitu, B.
(1989) Melaju sini, het Maleis van Molukse jongeren in Nederland (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Leiden University:
Tarone, E., & Bigelow, M.
(2005) Impact of literacy on oral language processing: Implications for SLA research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25, 77–97. Crossref link
Tarone, E., Bigelow, M., & Hansen, K.
(2009) Literacy and second language oracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Thomason, S. G., & Kaufman, T.
(1988) Language contact, creolization, and genetic linguistics. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Toribio, A. J.
(2004) Convergence as an optimization strategy in bilingual speech: Evidence from code-switching. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 7(2), 165–173. Crossref link
Torres Cacoullos, R., & Travis, C. E.
(2015) Gauging convergence on the ground: Code-switching in the community. International Journal of Bilingualism, 19(4), 365–386. Crossref link
Torres Cacoullos, R.
(2000) Grammaticization, synchronic variation, and language contact. A study of Spanish progressive -ndo constructions. Amsterdam:: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Townsend, D. J., & Bever, T. G.
(2001) Sentence comprehension: The integration of habits and rules. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Treffers-Daller, J.
(1994) Mixing two languages: French-Dutch contact in a comparative perspective. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. Crossref link
(2011) Operationalising and measuring language dominance. International Journal of Bilingualism, 15(2), 147–163. Crossref link
Trudgill, P.
(2011) Sociolinguistic typology: Social determinants of linguistic complexity. Oxford: Oxford. University Press.
Tsimpli, I. M., & Sorace, A.
(2006) Differentiating interfaces: L2 performance in syntax/semantics and syntax/discourse phenomena. In D. Bamman, T. Magnitskaia, & C. Zaller (Eds.), BUCLD 30, Proceedings of the 30th annual Boston University Conference on Language Development (pp. 653–664). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Türker, E.
(2000) Turkish-Norwegian codeswitching. Evidence from intermediate and second generation Turkish immigrants in Norway. Oslo: Unipub Forlag.
UCLA Steering Committee
(2001) Heritage language research priorities conference report. Los Angeles, CA: University of California. Retrieved from http://​www​.cal​.org​/heritage​/involved​/hlprioritesconf00​.pdf (December 26, 2007).
Ullman, M. T.
(2001) The neural basis of lexicon and grammar in first and second language: The declarative/procedural model. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 4, 105–122. Crossref link
(1953) The use of vernacular languages in education. Paris: UNESCO.
Unsworth, S.
(2013) Current issues in multilingual first language acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 33, 21–50. Crossref link
Valdés, G.
(1995) The teaching of minority languages as academic subjects: Pedagogical and theoretical challenges. Modern Language Journal, 79(3), 299–328. Crossref link
(2000) Spanish for native speakers: AATSP professional development series. Handbook for teachers K-16 (Vol. 1). New York, NY: Harcourt College Publishers.
Van Assche, E., Drieghe, D., Duyck, W., Welvaert, M., & Hartsuiker, R. J.
(2011) The influence of semantic constraints on bilingual word recognition during sentence reading. Journal of Memory and Language, 64, 88–107. Crossref link
Van Coetsem, F.
(1988) Loan phonology and the two transfer types in language contact. Dordrecht: Foris. Crossref link
(2000) A general and unified theory of the transmission process in language contact. Heidelberg: Winter.
Van Deusen-Scholl, N.
(1998) Heritage language instruction: Issues and challenges. AILA Newsletter, 1, 12–14.
(2003) Toward a definition of heritage language: Sociopolitical and pedagogical considerations. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 2(3), 211–30. Crossref link
Vasilyeva, M., Waterfall, H., Gámez, P. B., Gómez, L. E., Bowers, E., & Shimpi, P.
(2010) Cross-linguistic syntactic priming in bilingual children. Journal of Child Language, 37, 1047–1064.
Vazsonyi, A.
(1995) Tul a kecegardan/Beyond castle garden. An American Hungarian dictionary of the Calumet region, ed. by M. Kontra. Budapest: Teleki László Alapítvány.
Vedder, P., Muysken, P., & Kook, H.
(1996) Language choice and functional differentiation of languages in bilingual parent-child reading. Applied Psycholinguistics, 17, 461–484. Crossref link
Veenman, J.
(1994) The social integration of Moluccans. Lelystad: Koninklijke Vermande.
(2001) Molukse jongeren in Nederland. Integratie met de rem erop. Assen: Koninklijke Van Gorcum.
Vellard, J.
(1949) Contribution à l’étude des indiens Urus ou Kot’suns. Travaux de l’Institut Français des Études Andines I (pp. 145–209). Paris-Lima.
Verhallen, M., & Schoonen, R.
(1998) Lexical knowledge in L1 and L2 of third and fifth graders. Applied Linguistics, 19(4), 452–470. Crossref link
Verhoef, K., Roelofs, A., & Chwilla, D. J.
(2009) Role of inhibition in language switching: Evidence from event-related brain potentials in overt picture naming. Cognition, 110(1), 84–99. Crossref link
Verhoeven, L.
(2000) Components in early second language reading and spelling. Scientific Studies of Reading, 4(4), 314–330. Crossref link
Vermeer, A.
(2001) Breadth and depth of vocabulary in relation to acquisition and frequency of input. Applied Psycholinguistics, 22(2), 217–234. Crossref link
Vermes, G., & Boutet, J.
(Eds.) (1987) France, pays multilingue. Pratiques de langues en France. Paris: l’Harmattan.
Verschik, A.
(2014) Bare participle forms in the speech of Lithuanian Yiddish heritage speakers: Multiple causation. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 226, 213–235.
Versteegh, K.
(2014) The Arabic language (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Vertovec, S.
(2001) Transnationalism and identity. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 27(4), 573–582. Crossref link
(2007) Super-diversity and its implications. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 29(6), 1024–54. Crossref link
(2010) Towards post-multiculturalism? Changing communities, conditions and contexts of diversity. International Social Science Journal, 199, 83–95. Crossref link
Vertovec, S., & Cohen, R.
(Eds.) (1999) Migration, diasporas and transnationalism. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Villerius, S.
(2019) Development of Surinamese Javanese: Language contact and change in a multilingual context (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Radboud University, Nijmegen.
Villerius, S., Moro, F., & Klamer, M.
(To appear). Encoding transfer events in Surinamese Javanese. Journal of Language Contact.
Weber, K., & Indefrey, P.
(2009) Shared syntactic information in German-English bilinguals: An fMRI repetition suppression study. Neuroimage, 46, 1164–1172. Crossref link
Werker, J. F., Gilbert, J. H. V., Humphreys, K., & Tees, R. C.
(1981) Developmental aspects of cross-language speech perception. Child Development, 52, 349–355. Crossref link
Wertheim, S.
(2003) Linguistic purism, language shift, and contact-induced change in Tatar (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of California, Berkeley.
Wong Fillmore, L.
(1991) When learning a second language means losing the first. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 6(3), 323–346. Crossref link
Wong-Fillmore, L.
(2011) An ecological perspective on intergenerational language transmission. In M. E. Romero-Little, S. J. Ortiz, & T. L. McCarty (Eds.), Indigenous languages across the generations – Strengthening families and communities (pp. 19–48). Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University Press.
Wood, R. E.
(1970) Papiamentu: Dutch contributions (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Indiana University.
(1971) The English loanwords in Papiamentu. Nieuwe West-Indische Gids, 48, 173–189. Crossref link
(1972) Dutch syntactic loans in Papiamentu. Revue des Langues Vivantes, 38(6), 635–647.
Woolard, K. A.
(1989) Language convergence and language death as social processes. In N. Dorian (Ed.) Investigating obsolescence: Studies in language contraction and death (pp. 355–367). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Yagmur, K., & Kroon, S.
(2003) Ethnolinguistic vitality perceptions and language revitalisation in Bashkortostan. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 24(4), 319–336. Crossref link
Yagmur, K., & Akinci, M.-A.
(2003) Language use, choice, maintenance and ethnolinguistic vitality of Turkish speakers in France: Intergenerational differences. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 164, 107–128.
Yeni-Komshian, G., Flege, J. E., & Liu, S.
(2000) Pronunciation proficiency in first and second languages of Korean–English bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 3, 131–149. Crossref link
Yılmaz, G.
(2013) Bilingual language development among the first generation Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Groningen.
Yip, V., & S. Matthews
(2007) The Bilingual Child: Early Development and Language Contact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Zabrodskaja, A.
(2009) Russian-Estonian language contacts: Grammatical aspects of language use and change (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Tallin University, Estonia.
Zeeuw, M. de, Verhoeven, L., & Schreuder, R.
(2012) Morphological family size effects in young first and second language learners: Evidence of cross-language semantic activation in visual word recognition. Language Learning, 62(1), 68–92. Crossref link
Zeeuw, M. de, Schreuder, R., & Verhoeven, L.
(2013) Processing of regular and irregular past-tense verb forms in first and second language reading acquisition. Language Learning, 63(4), 740–765. Crossref link
(2015) Lexical processing of nominal compounds in first- and second-language learners across primary grades. Writing Systems Research, 7(2), 133–156. Crossref link
Zenner, E., Speelman, D., & Geeraerts, D.
(2013) Macro and micro perspectives on the distribution of English in Dutch. A quantitative usage-based analysis of job ads. Linguistics, 51(5), 1019–1064. Crossref link
Zipf, G. K.
(1949) Human behavior and the principle of least effort. An introduction to human ecology. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley Press.
Cited by

Cited by other publications

Rao, Rajiv & Sandro Sessarego
2020.  In Spanish Phonetics and Phonology in Contact [Issues in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics, 28], Crossref logo

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 28 april 2020. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.

BIC Subject: CFDM – Bilingualism & multilingualism
BISAC Subject: LAN020000 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Study & Teaching
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  2019038038